Cancer Tumor Angiogenesis and Blood Vessels: Understanding How Tumors SpreadCancer stem cells or tumor-instating cells are responsible for the formation of tumors. These cancer cells have the ability to quickly reshape, destroy or fuse with existing blood vessels, giving them access to more nutrients and oxygen. Unfortunately, this also leads to the spread of tumors to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.Tumors release protein factors that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels, a process called tumor angiogenesis. It's important to note that this is different from angiogenesis, which is the growth of blood vessels during the healing process. By understanding how tumor angiogenesis works, we can develop new medical techniques to fight cancer and prevent its spread to other parts of the body. ... See MoreSee Less


Cancer Chemotherapy Statistics

April 11, 2022
Est. Reading: 3 minutes

The General Concept of Chemotherapy on Cancer Cells

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs. An older and broader use of the word chemotherapy encompassed any chemical treatment of disease, inhibiting cells, whether they be cancerous self cells or foreign cells such as bacteria. The general concept of this treatment has been used for 70 years originating from the effects of Mustard gas in World War 1 is now a multi-billion dollar industry and the standard of care for cancer treatment.

Because cancer cells may grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells, chemotherapy is made to kill growing cells. Many normal, healthy cells also multiply quickly, and chemotherapy can affect these cells, too. This damage to normal cells causes side effects. The fast-growing, normal cells most likely to be affected are blood cells forming in the bone marrow and cells in the digestive tract (mouth, stomach, intestines, esophagus), reproductive system (sexual organs), and hair follicles. Chemo may affect cells of vital organs, such as the heart, kidney, bladder, lungs, and nervous system.

side effects of chemotherapy

In view of the minimal impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy on 5-year survival, and the lack of any major progress over the last 20 years, it follows that the main role of cytotoxic chemotherapy is in palliation. Although for many malignancies, symptom control may occur with cytotoxic chemotherapy, this is rarely reported, and, for most patients, the survival in those who obtain a response is rarely beyond 12 months.

The introduction of cytotoxic chemotherapy for solid tumors and the establishment of the sub-specialty of medical oncology have been accepted as an advance in cancer management. However, despite the early claims of chemo as the panacea for curing all cancers, the impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy is limited to small subgroups of patients and mostly occurs in the less common malignancies.


What are the statistics on chemotherapy?

cytotoxic chemotherapy, chemotherapy, risks, cancer, cancer treatment, cells


Even so, any new chemotherapy drug is still promoted as a major breakthrough in the fight against cancer, only to be later rejected without the fanfare that accompanied its arrival. In an environment of scarce resources and cost containment, there is a need for evidence-based assessment before any new or previously accepted treatment is accepted as standard practice. To justify the continued funding and availability of drugs used in cytotoxic chemotherapy, a rigorous evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and impact on the quality of life is urgently required.

The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies

This study was presented by the Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW; Department of Medical Oncology,
St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW; Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia


Common side effects of Chemotherapy

You may have none of these side effects or just a few. The kinds of side effects you have and how severe they are, depend on the type and dose of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts.


cancer cells

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea & Vomiting
  • Pain
  • Hair Loss
  • Anemia
  • Infection
  • Blood Clotting Problems
  • Mouth, Gum, and Throat Problems
  • Diarrhea and Constipation
  • Nerve and Muscle Effects
  • Effects on Skin and Nails
  • Radiation Recall
  • Kidney and Bladder Effects
  • Flu-Like Symptoms
  • Fluid Retention
  • Effects on Sexual Organs and Sexuality

Higher Risks of Cognitive Changes with Chemotherapy

Cognitive changes are sometimes related to higher-dose chemotherapy and the use of immunotherapy to boost the immune system. Those who have cancer involving the brain may also experience cognitive changes as a result of the tumor or the treatment of the tumor. While cognitive changes associated with brain surgery often occur immediately, changes associated with radiation and chemotherapy can develop more gradually over time.

  • Tumors are located in the central nervous system (CNS) which includes the brain and spinal cord.
  • Treatments are administered directly to the CNS.
  • Treatments are administered when extremely ill.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation are given to the brain at the same time.
  • Chemotherapy is given into the spinal fluid after radiation.

Some changes after cancer are very minor and will go away. Other cognitive changes may be more noticeable and may not be reversible.

Cognitive Changes with Chemotherapy

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