Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) – The Good – Superoxide – The Bad – Disease – The Ugly

We can’t live without oxygen. Our cells rely on oxygen as the final acceptor of electrons in respiration, allowing us to extract far more energy from food than would be possible without oxygen. But oxygen is also a dangerous compound. Reactive forms of oxygen, such as superoxide (oxygen with an extra electron), leak from the respiratory enzymes and wreak havoc on the cell. This superoxide can then cause mutations in DNA or attack enzymes that make amino acids and other essential molecules. This is a significant problem: Continue reading

Hyperbaric Oxygen In Cancer Treatment

It has been long known in the medical field that that proper healing of the body and resistance to infection cannot occur without oxygen. Oxygen is believed to be required for all the major processes involved in wound healing, including resistance to infection, activation of fibroblasts, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and epithelization. Under normal circumstances, oxygen is carried through the body by red blood cells only, this is sufficient for a healthy person to have all the oxygen required to maintain normal functioning. But what about when someone is sick and how does this play a role in cancer treatment? Continue reading

The Evolution Of Cancer Cells – Why Cancer Is So Hard To Kill?

The current standard of care for cancer is a very general “one-size-fits-all” therapy and the more we learn about cancer the more we realize that all cancers are different and the treatment is becoming less and less realistic. The problem with chemotherapy is that it has no way to directly target cancer cells. Chemotherapy acts by killing any cell that is in the process of dividing. Ideally, because cancer cells divide much more rapidly than normal cells, they are targeted more. However, the more we learn about the adaptability of cancer cells that enable them to evade certain therapies, combined with the fact that there are several systems of healthy cells that are also constantly dividing, we are forced to rethink the future of cancer therapies. For example, hair cells, skin cells, intestine cells and bone marrow cells are all normal healthy cells that are constantly dividing and therefore suffer from chemotherapy. In the bone marrow is where new blood cells are constantly being made (about 500 billion cells per day), this includes red and white blood cells. Continue reading

Cancer – Free Radicals – Reactive Oxygen Species – Killer Cells – SOD – How Are They Linked?

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is a phrase used to describe a number of reactive molecules and free radicals derived from molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen-based radicals is the bane to all aerobic species. These molecules, produced as byproducts during the mitochondrial electron transport of aerobic respiration or by oxidoreductase enzymes and metal-catalyzed oxidation, have the potential to cause a number of deleterious events. Continue reading