Testicular cancer is relatively rare, but it is the most common cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 44. There is no one definitive cause of testicular cancer. cancercelltreatment.com/2022/06/27/preventing-testicular-cancer/ ... See MoreSee Less
4 Dangerous Types of Bone Cancer Bone cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the bone. The most common type of bone cancer is osteosarcoma, which usually affects children and young adults. Other types of bone cancer include chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. This type of cancer can be challenging to treat because it can spread to other body parts. Treatment typically involves surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for the best possible outcome. There is no sure way to prevent it, but there are some things an individual can do to lower their risk. These include maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding exposure to certain chemicals, and not smoking. Find these dangerous types of bone cancers in our blog: cancercelltreatment.com/2022/06/13/types-of-bone-cancer/ ... See MoreSee Less
Tumor Microenvironment - The Environment at the Cellular Level The tumor microenvironment is a complex and dynamic milieu that plays a pivotal role in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor cells interact with various stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and immune cells, to create a microenvironment that promotes tumor growth and metastasis.This metastasis may lead to creating a malignant tumor or a benign tumor. Benign typically means that it is a non-cancerous tumor. Tumor-educated leukocytes also contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment. A better understanding of the interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment will provide insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.Visit our blog: cancercelltreatment.com/2022/05/31/tumor-microenvironment/ ... See MoreSee Less


Dangerous Reactive Oxygen Species - Superoxide Dismutase

April 19, 2022
Est. Reading: 3 minutes

Reactive Oxygen Species

We can't live without oxygen. Our cells rely on oxygen as the final acceptor of electrons in respiration, allowing us to extract far more energy from food than would be possible without oxygen. But oxygen is also a dangerous compound. When it reacts with other molecules, it can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage cells. To prevent this damage, our cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to keep ROS levels in check.

One important way that cells control ROS levels is through the use of enzymes called antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, unstable molecules that the body produces as a response to environmental and other pressures. The body also needs antioxidant enzymes to clean up these dangerous molecules.

There are many types of antioxidant enzymes, each with a specific role to play in protecting cells from ROS. One important type of antioxidant enzyme is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Dismutase in this context means to break down, and SOD breaks down SO into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. While hydrogen peroxide is itself a reactive compound, but it is not as reactive as superoxide, it can still damage cells. To prevent this, another type of antioxidant enzyme, catalase, breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. SOD and catalase are just two of the many antioxidant enzymes that our cells use to control ROS levels. These enzymes are essential for keeping our cells healthy and preventing disease.


Exploring the Structure

Superoxide Dismutase, SOD, Superoxide, DismutaseCu/Zn superoxide dismutase is a very efficient enzyme.

Zn is an important mineral for the body because it helps to protect cells from damage. Researchers have determined that one out of every ten collisions between superoxide (SO) and the enzyme will lead to a reaction. This is far more than expected, since the active site covers only a small portion of the enzyme surface, and we might expect that most collisions would occur somewhere else on the surface.

The shape and characteristics of the active site, however, may give some hints to this efficiency. The active site is funnel-shaped, with copper and zinc (colored green here) at the base of the funnel. The strong positive charge of the metal ions, along with two nearby positively-charged amino acids (colored blue here), serve to draw the negatively-charged SO (red) into the funnel.
Structure of Structure Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase


Superoxides and Superoxide Dismutase: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Inorganic Mechanism

SOD in the Clinic

Superoxide Dismutases: Role in Redox Signaling, Vascular Function, and Diseases.

SOD has recently gained notoriety for its connection with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, more commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Recent research has shown that one of the mutations is found in the gene for SOD. Scientists are now studying the role of SOD in the disease, hoping that this knowledge will lead to new treatments and cures.

The list of pathophysiological conditions that are associated with the overproduction of SO anions expands every day. The most exciting realization is that there seems to be a similarity between the tissue injury that is observed in various disease states, as SO anions produce tissue injury and associated inflammation in all tissues in similar ways.

Tissue injury and inflammation form the basis of many disease pathologies, including ischemia and reperfusion injuries, radiation injury, hyperoxic lung damage, and atherosclerosis. This commonality provides a unique opportunity to manipulate numerous disease states with an agent that removes SO anions.
Superoxide anions produce tissue injury and associated inflammation

Mitochondrial Theory of Aging

We hope you have enjoyed this article on ROS. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact us. Thanks for reading!

Sharing is caring
Copyright © 2023 All Rights Reserved
cross linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram