Hydrogen is the most prevalent element in the universe and the deciding factor in life. Hydrogen exists on Earth in many compounds, such as water, the most abundant mixture on Earth. It also exists in almost all organic compounds, making up about 61 percent of all the atoms in the human body.
Hydrogen is an intense study on what it is, what it does, and the forms it can become.
What's the difference between H, H2, H+, H- and OH- they are all classed as Hydrogen, but in entirely different states doing many other things. The hydrogen atom, stripped of its electron, the symbol H+, also called a hydron, is still labeled Hydrogen. The hydrated form of the hydrogen cation, the hydronium (hydroxonium) ion H3O+ (aq), is a crucial object of Arrhenius' definition of acid.
The single Hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron. Due to its extremely high charge density of approximately 2×1010 times that of a sodium ion, the bare hydrogen ion cannot exist freely in solution as it readily hydrates, i.e., bonds quickly. IUPAC recommends the hydrogen ion as a general term for all ions of Hydrogen and its isotopes. Depending on the charge of the ion, two different classes can be distinguished: positively charged ions and negatively charged ions.
The dihydrogen cation or molecular hydrogen ion is a cation (positive ion) with the formula H2+. It consists of two hydrogen nuclei (protons) sharing a single electron. It is the simplest molecular ion. The ion can be formed from the ionization of a neutral hydrogen molecule H2. It is commonly formed in molecular clouds in space, by the action of cosmic rays.
The dihydrogen cation is of great historical and theoretical interest because, having only one electron, the equations of quantum mechanics that describe its structure can be solved in a relatively straightforward way. The first such solution was derived by Ø. Burrau in 1927, just one year after the wave theory of quantum mechanics was published.
Cationic Hydrogen is different from the molecule hydrogen. The H+ ion is just a proton, not an atom, and cannot exist by itself; it will form the fundamental H3O+ ion with water and reacts with basically any molecule it contacts. If kept in an inert environment with no other molecules available, it will form Hydrogen plasma, a purple substance.
Hydrogen can usually be found in its dimer form H2, a colorless gas which is two protons bound by two s-electrons that form a covalent pair. It is not a cation.
Water is the essential resource for all life on Earth, and it contains two hydrogen atoms bonded together with one oxygen atom and is absorbed by the body's cells.
A critical hydrogen function in the human body is to keep you hydrated. Water transports nutrients to the cells, strengthening the immune system and keeping everything lubricated.
We all know that Hydrogen is found in sugar, proteins, and fats. But you might not have learned the other important role it plays as a building block for the human diet.
Hydrogen helps produce energy in the body in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). We consume energy-giving food like carbohydrates, which are carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen. Enzymes present in our body help in the digestion of food and break down complex food into simpler ones.
Hydrogen is responsible for slowing down the aging process of the body. Aging is caused by the substance present in the body called free radicals. Hydrogen is stored in our body's tissues, protecting us from the damage that free radicals do.
Molecular Hydrogen provides medical help to many people as it elevates oral medicine to the level of intravenous medication because of quick absorption and dispersion deep into the cells.
The Molecular Hydrogen Ion is an ideal antioxidant molecule for oxidative stress in the mitochondria due to its small size. Therefore, drinking Hydrogen dissolved water improves the pathology of mitochondrial disorders and stimulates energy metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.
Application of Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports Science
H2 may be a potential alternative strategy for conventional exogenous antioxidant interventions in sports science. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence regarding the effects of H2 intake on changes in physiological and biochemical parameters, centering on exercise-induced oxidative stress, for each intake method. Furthermore, this review highlights possible future directions in this area of research.
Molecular Hydrogen: a preventive and therapeutic medical gas for various diseases
Since the 2007 discovery that molecular Hydrogen (H2) has particular antioxidant properties, multiple studies have shown that H2 has beneficial effects in diverse animal models and human disease. This review discusses H2 biological effects and potential mechanisms of action in various diseases, including metabolic syndrome, organ injury, and cancer; describes effective H2 delivery approaches; and summarizes recent progress toward H2 applications in human medicine.
We also discuss the remaining questions in H2 therapy and conclude with an appeal for a greater role for H2 in the prevention and treatment of human ailments that are currently major global health burdens. This review makes a case for supporting hydrogen medicine in human disease prevention and therapy.
Molecular Hydrogen: current knowledge on mechanism in alleviating free radical damage and diseases
Ever since molecular Hydrogen was first reported as a hydroxyl radical scavenger in 2007, the beneficial effect of Hydrogen was documented in more than 170 disease models and human diseases including ischemia/reperfusion injury, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer. All these pathological damages are concomitant with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) where molecular Hydrogen has been widely demonstrated as a selective antioxidant.
Although it is difficult to construe the molecular mechanism of Hydrogen's biomedical effect, an increasing number of studies have been helping us draw the picture clearer with days passing by. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on systemic and cellular modulation by hydrogen treatment. We discussed the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptosis effects of Hydrogen, as well as its protection on mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, and balancing of the immune cell subtypes.
Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment
Hydrogen gas (formula: H2) emerges as another GSM that possesses multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-reactive oxygen species, and anti-cancer. In addition, growing evidence has shown that hydrogen gas can either alleviate the side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutics or suppress the growth of cancer cells and xenograft tumors, suggesting its broad potent application in clinical therapy.
Hydrogen Ion Dynamics of Cancer and a New Molecular, Biochemical and Metabolic Approach to the Etiopathogenesis and Treatment of Brain Malignancies
No real breakthrough has been hitherto achieved with this tumor with an ominous prognosis and very short survival. Glioblastomas, being highly glycolytic malignancies are strongly pH-dependent and driven by the sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) and other proton (H+) transporters. Therefore, this is one of those pathologies where the lessons recently learned from the new pH-centered anticancer paradigm may soon bring a promising change to treatment. This contribution will discuss how the pH-centric molecular, biochemical and metabolic perspective may introduce some urgently needed and integral novel treatments. Such a prospective therapeutic approach for malignant brain tumors is developed here, either to be used alone or in combination with more standard therapies.
Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent
Although ionizing radiation (radiation) is commonly used for medical diagnosis and cancer treatment, radiation-induced damages cannot be avoided. Such damages can be classified into direct and indirect damages, caused by the direct absorption of radiation energy into DNA and by free radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), generated in the process of water radiolysis. More specifically, radiation damage concerns not only direct damages to DNA, but also secondary damages to non-DNA targets, because low-dose radiation damage is mainly caused by these indirect effects.
Molecular Hydrogen (H2) has the potential to be a radioprotective agent because it can selectively scavenge •OH, a reactive oxygen species with strong oxidizing power. Animal experiments and clinical trials have reported that H2 exhibits a highly safe radioprotective effect. This paper reviews previously reported radioprotective effects of H2 and discusses the mechanisms of H2, not only as an antioxidant, but also in intracellular responses including anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and the regulation of gene expression. In doing so, we demonstrate the prospects of H2 as a novel and clinically applicable radioprotective agent.
Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression
While many antitumor drugs have yielded unsatisfactory therapeutic results, drugs are one of the most prevalent therapeutic measures for the treatment of cancer. The development of cancer largely results from mutations in nuclear DNA, as well as from those in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Molecular Hydrogen (H2), an inert molecule, can scavenge hydroxyl radicals (·OH), which are known to be the strongest oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body that causes these DNA mutations.
It has been reported that H2 has no side effects, unlike conventional antitumor drugs, and that it is effective against many diseases caused by oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Recently, there has been an increasing number of papers on the efficacy of H2 against cancer and its effects in mitigating the side effects of cancer treatment. In this review, we demonstrate the efficacy and safety of H2 as a novel antitumor agent and show that its mechanisms may not only involve the direct scavenging of ·OH, but also other indirect biological defense mechanisms via the regulation of gene expression.
Hydrogen Bond Strength-Mediated Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanogels for Selective and Effective Cancer Treatment
This study contributes significantly to developing multiple hydrogen-bonded supramolecular nanocarrier systems by demonstrating that controlling the hydrogen bond strength within supramolecular polymers is crucial to tailor the drug delivery performance and enhance the effectiveness of cancer therapy.
Results indicated that increasing the strength of hydrogen bonds in nanogels plays a key role in enhancing drugs’ selective cellular uptake and cytotoxicity and the subsequent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.
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