Hydrogen is the most prevalent element in the universe and the deciding factor in life. Hydrogen exists in many compounds, such as water, the most abundant mixture on Earth. It also exists in almost all organic compounds, making up about 61 percent of all the atoms in the human body.
Hydrogen is an intense study of what it is, what it does, and the forms it can become.
What's the difference between H, H2, H+, H-, and OH-? They are all classed as Hydrogen but in entirely different states doing many other things. The hydrogen atom, stripped of its electron, the symbol H+, also called a hydron, is still labeled Hydrogen. The hydrated form of the hydrogen cation, the hydronium (hydroxonium) ion H3O+ (aq), is a crucial object of Arrhenius' definition of acid.
When a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron, it creates a hydrogen ion. Due to its extremely high charge density of approximately 2×1010 times that of a sodium ion, the bare hydrogen ion cannot exist freely in solution as it readily hydrates, i.e., bonds quickly. IUPAC recommends the hydrogen ion as a general term for all ions of Hydrogen and its isotopes. Depending on the charge of the ion, two different classes can be distinguished: positively charged ions and negatively charged ions.
The dihydrogen cation or molecular hydrogen ion is a cation (positive ion) with the formula H2+. It consists of two hydrogen nuclei (protons) sharing a single electron. It is the simplest molecular ion. The ion forms from ionizing a neutral hydrogen molecule, H2. It is commonly developed in molecular clouds in space by the action of cosmic rays.
The dihydrogen cation is of great historical and theoretical interest because, having only one electron, the equations of quantum mechanics that describe its structure can be solved relatively straightforwardly. Ø derived the first such solution. Burrau in 1927, just one year after the wave theory of quantum mechanics was published.
Cationic Hydrogen is different from the molecule hydrogen. The H+ ion is just a proton, not an atom, and cannot exist by itself; it will form the fundamental H3O+ ion with water and react with basically any molecule it contacts. If kept in an inert environment with no other molecules, it will form Hydrogen plasma, a purple substance.
Hydrogen typically exists in its dimer form, H2, as a colorless gas where two protons bind together through two s-electrons to form a covalent pair. It is not a cation.
Water is the essential resource for all life on Earth. It contains two hydrogen atoms bonded with one oxygen atom and absorbed by the body's cells.
A critical hydrogen function in the human body is to keep you hydrated. Water transports nutrients to the cells, strengthening the immune system and keeping everything lubricated.
Hydrogen is in sugar, proteins, and fats. But you might have yet to learn its other important role as a building block for the human diet.
Hydrogen helps produce energy in the body through ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). We consume energy-giving food like carbohydrates, which are carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen. Enzymes in our body help digest food and break down complex food into simpler ones.
Hydrogen is responsible for slowing down the aging process of the body. Aging occurs by the substances present in the body called free radicals. Hydrogen is stored in our body's tissues, protecting us from the damage of free radicals.
Molecular Hydrogen provides medical help to many people as it elevates oral medicine to the level of intravenous medication because of quick absorption and dispersion deep into the cells.
The Molecular Hydrogen Ion is an ideal antioxidant molecule for oxidative stress in the mitochondria due to its small size. Therefore, drinking Hydrogen dissolved water improves the pathology of mitochondrial disorders and stimulates energy metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.
Application of Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports Science
H2 may be a potential alternative strategy for conventional exogenous antioxidant interventions in sports science. This review aims to provide evidence regarding the effects of H2 intake on changes in physiological and biochemical parameters, centering on exercise-induced oxidative stress, for each intake method. Furthermore, this review highlights possible future directions in this area of research.
Molecular Hydrogen: a preventive and therapeutic medical gas for various diseases
Since the 2007 discovery that molecular Hydrogen (H2) has particular antioxidant properties, multiple studies have shown that H2 has beneficial effects in diverse animal models and human disease. This review discusses H2 biological effects and potential mechanisms of action in various conditions, including metabolic syndrome, organ injury, and cancer; describes practical H2 delivery approaches; and summarizes recent progress toward H2 applications in human medicine.
We also discuss the remaining questions in H2 therapy and conclude with an appeal for a more significant role for H2 in the prevention and treatment of human ailments that are currently substantial global health burdens. This review makes a case for supporting hydrogen medicine in human disease prevention and therapy.
Molecular Hydrogen: current knowledge on mechanism in alleviating free radical damage and diseases
Since its first report as a hydroxyl radical scavenger in 2007, researchers have documented the beneficial effects of Hydrogen in over 170 disease models and human diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanies all these pathological damages, and researchers have widely demonstrated molecular Hydrogen's role as a selective antioxidant in this context.
Although it is difficult to construe the molecular mechanism of Hydrogen's biomedical effect, many studies have been helping us draw the picture more apparent with days passing by. This review summarized the current knowledge on systemic and cellular modulation by hydrogen treatment. We discussed Hydrogen's antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptosis effects, its protection of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, and balancing of the immune cell subtypes.
Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment
Hydrogen gas (formula: H2) emerges as another GSM with multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-reactive oxygen species, and anti-cancer. In addition, growing evidence has shown that hydrogen gas can either alleviate the side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutics or suppress the growth of cancer cells and xenograft tumors, suggesting its broad, potent application in clinical therapy.
Hydrogen Ion Dynamics of Cancer and a New Molecular, Biochemical, and Metabolic Approach to the Etiopathogenesis and Treatment of Brain Malignancies
This tumor has yet to achieve a real breakthrough, with an ominous prognosis and very short survival. Glioblastomas, highly glycolytic malignancies, are strongly pH-dependent and driven by the sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) and other proton (H+) transporters. Therefore, this is one of those pathologies where the lessons recently learned from the new pH-centered anticancer paradigm may soon bring a promising change to treatment. This contribution will discuss how the pH-centric molecular, biochemical, and metabolic perspective may introduce some urgently needed and integral novel treatments.
Here, we develop a prospective therapeutic approach for malignant brain tumors, used alone or combined with more standard therapies.
Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent
While ionizing radiation (radiation) finds everyday use in medical diagnosis and cancer treatment, it remains inevitable that it causes radiation-induced damage.
We can classify such injuries as direct and indirect damages. Direct damages result from the natural absorption of radiation energy into DNA, while indirect damages occur due to free radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), generated in water radiolysis. More specifically, radiation damage concerns direct damage to DNA and secondary damage to non-DNA targets because these indirect effects mainly cause low-dose radiation damage.
Molecular Hydrogen (H2) has the potential to be a radioprotective agent because it can selectively scavenge •OH, a reactive oxygen species with oxidizing solid power. Animal experiments and clinical trials have reported that H2 exhibits a highly safe radioprotective effect. This paper reviews previously written radioprotective effects of H2. It discusses the mechanisms of H2, not only as an antioxidant but also in intracellular responses, including anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and the regulation of gene expression. In doing so, we demonstrate the prospects of H2 as a novel and clinically applicable radioprotective agent.
Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression
While many antitumor drugs have yielded unsatisfactory therapeutic results, drugs are one of the most prevalent therapeutic measures for cancer treatment. The development of cancer primarily results from mutations in nuclear DNA, as well as from those in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Molecular Hydrogen (H2), an inert molecule, can scavenge hydroxyl radicals (·OH), which are known to be the most vital oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body that causes these DNA mutations.
Reports indicate that H2 has no side effects, unlike conventional antitumor drugs, and it effectively addresses many diseases caused by oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Recently, there has been an increasing number of papers on the efficacy of H2 against cancer and its effects in mitigating the side effects of cancer treatment. In this review, we demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of H2 as a novel antitumor agent and show that its mechanisms may involve not only the direct scavenging of ·OH but other indirect biological defense mechanisms via the regulation of gene expression.
Hydrogen Bond Strength-Mediated Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanogels for Selective and Effective Cancer Treatment
This study contributes significantly to developing multiple hydrogen-bonded supramolecular nanocarrier systems by demonstrating that controlling the hydrogen bond strength within supramolecular polymers is crucial to tailoring the drug delivery performance and enhancing the effectiveness of cancer therapy.
Results indicated that increasing the strength of hydrogen bonds in nanogels is vital in enhancing drugs’ selective cellular uptake and cytotoxicity and the subsequent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.
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